Reproductive Health Physicians


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Thyroid nodules, ultrasound, and biopsy

Thyroid nodules are caused by overgrowth of thyroid cells and can be either benign (noncancerouscells) or malignant (cancer cells).  Some nodules are actually cysts and are filled with fluid rather than cells.  Thyroid nodules are very common and an important decision has to be made whether the nodule should be followed over time or if a biopsy of the nodule is indicated at the time it is found.  The best way to evaluate a thyroid nodule or cyst is with a thyroid ultrasound.  If the nodule or cyst has certain characteristics on ultrasound or if it has reached a certain threshold size, then a biopsy should likely be done.


THyroid Cancer information

Thyroid nodule biopsy INFORMATION

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The Thyroid Gland

The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland that sits on top of the windpipe (trachea) in the lower part of the neck.  The thyroid gland produces two types of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) which are necessary for normal function of every tissue in the body.


Thyroid Imbalance

The two main types of thyroid dysfunction are either overproduction of thyroid hormone or underproduction of thyroid hormone.  The most common cause of overproduction of thyroid hormone is called Graves Disease and the most common cause of underproduction of thyroid hormone is called Hashimoto’s Disease.  Both of these common problems are caused by an underlying autoimmune process in the thyroid. It is important to evaluate thyroid function closely to determine the cause of the problem and choose the right type of treatment to balance the thyroid hormones.